Tissue Culture Of Holarrhena Antidyasentrica (Wall) & Detection Of Alkaloids In Callus Produced

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G.N.Khalsa College, Matunga-19.

Generally the therapeutically active principles of medicinal plants are secondary metabolites and most of them are accumulated after certain age of maturity. Trees and plants attain maturity in few years and then only they accumulate active principles in large amounts. It is difficult to increase the plantation for a particular sp. because of constraints of lands and other resources. To meet the ever increasing demand on
medicinal plants the natural resources are not sufficient, an effective alternate method is to develop tissue in vitro which can yield the same phytoconstituents in larger quantities.

Amoebic dysentry is very common disease which is difficult to treat and erradicate. In ayurvedic treatment kutaja or kurchi bark of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Wall) belonging to family Apocyanaceae is used. In addition traditionally the bark is also used for Jaundice, skin and urinary troubles , diarrhoea , fever ,piles and worms. Mainly decoctions from the root bark is used as a cure for amoebic dysentry-name antidysentrica meaning this. It also has tonic and astringent properties. With an intention of getting the active principles in callus, tissue culture of Holarrhena antidysentrica using various explants like leaf, seeds , apical and terminal bud, etc. was undertaken .MS medium supplemented with hormones, auxins and kinetin was used. Profuse callus formation was obtained within three weeks. These calli were tested for active principles especially alkaloids. It was found that aquatic callus extracts contained alkaloids. Of these the seed calli showed higher alkaloid content than those of leaf ,terminal and axillary buds, etc.

When high amount of alkaloid is available in in vitro cultured callus ,it produces the additional advantages over the plant source. As the root bark is used in traditional system, the trees get destroyed which are rare so it is not advisable to destroy them further. To get the secondary metabolites after planting seedlings you have to wait atleast 3-5 years and large amount of resources have to utilized for this. Natural
sources of plants may have contaminations by bacteria ,virus ,fungi, insects, etc.

Extraction and isolation of alkaloids form the plants are so lengthy and expensive processes. By obtaining phytoconstituents from in vitro cultured callus tissue, we can eliminate all these disadvantages. Micropropagation by plant tissue culture become helpful for conservation of plants.